Stretching to improve range of motion should always be done after an adequate warm-up. Using stretching as a warm-up, when the muscles are cold, increases discomfort and is not as effective. A five minute warm-up of light calisthenics or cardiovascular exercise will raise muscle temperature, increase blood flow, and allow the stretched muscle to relax and elongate more effectively and with less discomfort. Warm, moist heating pads, or a brief warm water bath are other effective ways to increase muscle temperature. When exercising outdoors, wear loose fitting, warm clothes during the warm-up and stretching, which can be removed as the workout intensifies.